Two lighthouses were built in 1860, but due to the expense, one lighthouse was transferred to the Ministry of the Army in 1894. The current lighthouse is made up of a square brick tower with quoins and a stone foundation. The lighthouse's equipment was thoroughly overhauled with the elimination of the mercury vat, which was replaced by a concrete platform. The keepers' house and the stables still exist at the back of the lighthouse.
The first lighthouse, originally known as “the Arcachon lighthouse,” was built in 1836 and was electrified in 1929. It was destroyed in 1944, and rebuilt between 1946 and 1948, roughly along the lines of its predecessor. The tower is slightly tapered with a dodecagonal-shaped upper section, topped by a rounded stonework crown. The upper part is painted red; the rest is white. At the rear of the base where one enters the lighthouse a rectangular machine room was added, connected to the lighthouse by a corridor. Above the entrance there is a pediment indicating the construction dates of the two lighthouses, in 1840 and 1947, flanking a bas-relief of a ship, a fish and the star of the lighthouse. The vestibule is decorated with mosaics by Labouret depicting the Arcachon basin and the Cap Ferret peninsula. Other furnishings include two busts, one of Beauchamps-Beaupré and another of Fresnel.
The Pointe du Grave is the most exposed point of the Gironde Estuary: no less than seven buildings were constructed in less than fifty years, one after the other. The current lighthouse, built in less than 9 months, consists of a square, quoined masonry tower painted black. The top part is also painted black. The flat-glass lantern is made out of copper. The lighthouse is flanked by the keepers's quarters. To the rear, the buildings meet in a square.
The construction of the Contis-les-Bains lighthouse was decreed in 1860 by Napoleon III. The cylindrical, stone-based tower is built out of garluche, a ferruginous stone of the region. The windows and crown are of Saint Savinien's stone. The equipment room, built in 1950, rings the base. The drum was decorated with an Archimedes screw in black and white in 1937 by the artist Bellocq, so it can be used as a landmark by day. Cast iron staircase.
TInitially a wooden beacon with two triangular black and white lights was erected in 1865. It was in the shape of a parallelepiped, supported by buttresses. In 1890, it was replaced by a similar structure made out of metal. This is the very last of the nineteenth-century beacons that once lined the Atlantic coast of Aquitaine, signaling to ships at what part of frustratingly uniform coast they were.
A cylindrical shaft sits atop a two-part base, which was originally octagonal, and which was extended in 1950 for the purposes of electrification. The base houses the engine room, service areas, housing for the keepers and quarters for temporary visitors. It is located on the top of the Saint-Martin cliff, south of the mouth of the Adour.
This leading light is paired with another at Ciboure. It is a perfect example of 1930s architecture. The structure is square, tapering as it rises and topped with a gable roof with pantiles. The north façade, facing the sea, has a red vertical stripe starting from the lintel of the entrance to the penultimate level, with the last window surrounded by a frame that is also painted red. A bow balcony adorns the north and south second-floor bays. The interior staircase, in concrete like the rest of the building, consists of straight flights with a tubular handrail. This lighthouse is an ex nihilo creation.
This leading light is paired with another at St. Jean de Luz. It reuses the tower built during the Second Empire, a square tower with quoins and stone balustrades. Pavlovsky's leading light, in its lower part, encompassed this initial building, whose corbelled railing stood out against the lighthouse's south wall. This square structure tapers towards the top. It is flanked to the south by two superimposed gable walls topped with a pediment, the upper wall being set back. These two upper levels, roofed in pantiles, house the optical system. On the north side, facing the sea, the bay openings are highlighted by a wide green vertical stripe connecting the base of the first floor to the penultimate window at the top. Inside, the first two floors are taken up by the keeper's quarters: a kitchen on the lower floor and a bedroom on the upper. A wooden staircase with straight flights and candelabra balusters serves the original levels. A wooden staircase with straight flights also provides access to the raised portion that was added in 1936.
The tower is located at the Pointe de Lenn, on a rock a few meters out from the shore. Its base, damaged by storms, was protected by a large-stone granite countermure. Above the base, the conical shaft was filled with sand and pebbles to weigh it down. The upper part, built of rubble stone, consists of three levels, two of which have a fireplace. The tower is crowned with a parapet with inset, Brittany-style corbelled battlements. Built in the sixteenth century, this watchtower and lighthouse helped to defend the mouth of the Vilaine, and belonged to the early nineteenth-century battery (or fort) of Pénerf.
In his 1758 memoir of the Languedoc coast, the Chevalier de Beautreville mentioned that a stone redoubt with a Barbette battery had been built at the top of the mountain, and that one could enter from the outside. In 1759, the Marquis de Feuillée stated that the redoubt was used as a signal. Its architecture seems to date from the eleventh century for the base, the thirteenth century for the slits, the fourteenth or fifteenth century for the crown, and the sixteenth/seventeenth century for the platform, the peaked roof was added much later.
Il est placé au sommet du Mont Saint-Loup (dernier maillon de la chaîne volcanique d'Auvergne) culminant à 115 metres. Le sémaphore de la marine nationale domine ainsi la côte agathoise et offre une superbe vue sur le Cap d'Agde. Son phare tournant, construit en 1836, était un excellent repère pour les marins. Celui-ci ne fonctionne plus depuis 1903.
Octagonal and slightly pyramidal 23-metre-tall tower built of stone masonry with quoins. Corbelled brackets connected by arches support an openwork balustrade. Stone base. Next to the lighthouse: various buildings with quarters and technical rooms. Garages, well, garden, field.
Feu situé sur le musoir du môle. Un feu fixe rouge sur un échaffaudage en fonte surmonté d'une lanterne cylindrique de 16m30 de hauteur y est installé le 1er avril 1885. Le feu est réclamé par la Compagnie Générale Transatlantique. Pour éviter les conséquences d'un tassement à prévoir dans les fondations du môle établies simplement sur des blocs artificiels il convenait de prévoir un phare le plus léger possible. L'utilisation du fer pour un tel édifice s'y prêtait. Le mode de construction en maçonnerie fut écarté et les ingénieurs des Ponts et Chaussées, Parlier et Cutzach, décidèrent d'élever le feu et la chambre de veille au sommet d'une charpente métallique composée de 6 montants tubulaires verticaux sur lesquels reposent la chambre de veille puis la lanterne construits par la firme Barbier. Le 1er novembre 1906 un nouvel appareil aux caractéristiques identiques (feu permanent) y est installé. Actuellement on y trouve un feu à 3 occultations rouges.
The original lighthouse was first lit on 1 May 1836. It was abandoned because it was too often hidden in the clouds. The second lighthouse consists of a pyramidal square-section stone tower, with quoins and corbelling at the top. Its foundation is of dressed stone. Several outbuildings are accessible from a staircase whose steps are made from regional stone, and whose handrail is made of brass and bronze. Opaline cladding on the walls. The interior is carefully done, with opaline walls and a mosaic floor in the vestibule.
The original lighthouse was built in 1828–29. It was extinguished in 1869 and decommissioned in 2002, and then was sold by the Lighthouse and Beacon Service to the municipality on 26 April 2005. The plans were drawn up by engineer Pierre Courant (1790–1838). At the request of the central office, the original plans from January 1825 were changed to raise the tower. The work was carried out under the direction of Victor Grangent (1768–1843), the Director of Ponts et Chaussées in Nimes. The lighthouse, which was based on the Fresnel-Reynaud model of the period, is a cylindrical tower rising from the centre of a massive foundation. The ground-floor facades with triangular gables are quite classical in appearance and built of large dressed stones. The 4-metre-diameter tower contains a spiral staircase giving access to the watch room. The lantern, capped with a domed, copper-covered roof rises 3.60 metres above the tower. The lantern offers access to an outer circular platform that is 4.5 metres in diameter, surrounded by a metal railing. Its metal structure is embedded in the stonework.
On 14 April 1860, the Lighthouse Commission called for a third-order lighthouse to be built at the Point d'Espiguette, and suggesting that it resemble the Pointe de Grave lighthouse, "whose provisions appear to be quite suitable in every respect". The plans by engineer Charles Lentheric from the Nimes Ponts et Chaussés (initial draft submitted in 1861 and a second in December 1864) received approval from the prefect for the Gard département on 15 June 1865, and the contract was awarded on 13 July 1865. The contractor Charles Dupuy had great difficulty in completing the project. Changes were made to the structure in 1866 and 1867: the tower height was raised by more than four metres, the interior cladding was changed to bush-hammered stone. The work was completed in late 1868, and the lighthouse was lit on 1 January 1869. Dupuy appealed to the government for compensation. By 1872, the Service was concerned about drifting sand that was affecting the lens, damaging the stonework and creeping into the garden and dwellings. The construction of a dune defense was recommended. The 27-metre-high square stone tower with dressed-stone quoins sits at the centre of a rectangular building. An external staircase (in Roquemaillère stone) gives access to the vestibule and the staircase (in Baruthel stone). The entire main building is decorated with a molded cornice in Frontignan stone. The courtyard is closed off by a wall and by a rectangular building parallel to the main structure that houses the engineers' quarters, garages and annexes. The courtyard's paving is skilfully done, and there is also a well. The scope of the structure, and its technical and aesthetic achievement, is clear.
The outer harbor of Honfleur, which consists of a basin to the east, a massive breakwater to the north and a stone pier to the west, was built between 1840 and 1845 to prevent the two harbours from silting up. It was at that time that the granite lighthouse was built on the eastern pierhead is to indicate the channel of the newly-built outer harbor. Damaged by lightning in 1850, it was repointed, cemented, repainted and fitted with a lightning rod in 1857. The work was done by the workmen who were building the lighthouse at the hospital. A platform surrounded by a railing was added. The entire outer harbor is now a listed monument: the lighthouse, signal mast, the marker shed and the three buildings on the quays.
This is the first lighthouse in France built on a rock with a radius of scarcely ten meters: the Gros du Raz sits 800 metres out to sea, off the Cap de la Hague. Morice de la Rüe was innovative in the way he placed the stairs on the outside in order to make the rooms independent and make life easier for the keepers. The neo-classical cylindrical tower, built from Flamanville granite, is enhanced by a talus and sits on a wide platform with a double staircase. It was also a novel idea to have a platform to protect the lighthouse and hold a cistern.
At the request of sailors, a lighthouse marking the dangers of Cap Lévi was put into service in 1858, but both the structure and its surrounding environment – built according to Serry’s architectural plans – were completely destroyed by an explosion on 28 June 1944. In line with the maritime signalling reconstruction programme, a new tower was planned. A square, pink granite tower with curved sides was constructed. The tower’s shaft is topped by a circular rotunda that houses the watch room — a novelty for the French coast. The building’s interior is very simple, but the two housing structures flanking the tower in a courtyard — which also encloses a garden — are spacious and comfortable.
The construction of a lighthouse on Pointe de Barfleur was suggested by Vauban to solve the problem of shipwrecks. It was completed in 1775 by the Rouen Chamber of Commerce and Industry. A 28-metre-high circular granite tower was constructed on a 15-metre-high square base, next to which was situated a keeper’s house and a fuel tank.
Beginning in 1822 the Granville Chamber of Commerce requested that a lighthouse be built at the Pointe du Roc because of the many shipwrecks that occurred near the port. The Director-General of Ponts et Chaussées decided to erect a circular tower from grey Chausey granite, to be equipped with a Fresnel lens. The tower houses three superimposed rooms. The keeper’s room includes a large oak-paneled box-bed and a marble fireplace. The ceiling and flooring are decorated with inlaid woodwork. A lantern from 1882 is decorated with lions and acanthus leaves.
In 1842 studies for the construction of a lighthouse on Grande Ile were undertaken under the aegis of Morice de la Rüe and Léonce Reynaud. Based on the Carteret lighthouse that he had constructed a few years earlier, Reynaud erected a square tower in ferruginous granite with a corbelled balustrade. Behind the tower was a rectangular building. The interiors were designed with the comfort of the keepers in mind: the placement of the staircase allows for a space for the vestibule, separate bedrooms fitted with an alcove, a wardrobe and windows facing different directions to let in more light. The lighthouse is surrounded by a garden and a vegetable garden. The building materials were excavated on site.
To provide greater safety for sailors navigating the Seine estuary, which was always a dangerous spot in the early nineteenth century, several lighting schemes were deployed by the Ministry of Public Works, one in 1837, and another starting in 1847. The second scheme called for the construction of four house-style lighthouses at Tancarville, Berville-sur-Mer, Saint-Vigor d'Ymonville and Saint-Samson de la Roque. Perfected by the architect Leonce Raynaud (1803–1880), this type of onshore lighthouse places the technical parts (light and access) into a dwelling that houses the lighthouse keeper and his family. The interior of the building was damaged, but the stairs, the lantern and its brass housing are intact. The lens was probably removed when it was decommissioned in 1910.
This lighthouse was constructed to signal a bend in the Seine, with a round, slightly tapered tower made out of dressed stone with brick facing. Inside, there is a circular stairwell that leads to a cut-glass lantern with brass fittings. The lighthouse’s original lamp used oil, which was superseded by gasoline in 1905, after which it was electrified. A low door gives onto a circular balcony with an iron railing for keeping watch.
In 1775, the Rouen chamber of commerce built a lighthouse on the cliffs of Ailly; it signalled the English Channel and Dieppe’s harbour. In 1890, this building – which was threatened by the erosion of the cliffs – was backed up by a new structure, which was destroyed during the bombings of 1944. During the time it took to replace it, from 1945 to 1953, a temporary lighthouse – a square, dressed-stone tower – was erected on the foundations of the 1775 lighthouse. The interior was reached by a gabled entryway decorated with lighthouse symbols, and a suspended limestone staircase led to the watch room built in gangway style. Abutting the tower, a technical building to the west and the keeper's house to the south, also in stone, were added between 1960 and 1964. This lighthouse is one of three Upper Normandy lighthouses that were rebuilt after 1950, along with those at La Hève and Antifer. It is one of the most powerful lighthouses on the English Channel.
Following the disappearance of the Tower of the Castilians, built in the fourteenth century on the cliff of Groin-de-Caux, which collapsed along with the cliff itself, two lighthouses were built at La Hève in 1775. Both were electrified in 1863. They were destroyed by artillery in 1944 during the Liberation of France. The current lighthouse consists of a concrete octagonal tower with corbelling at the top. It is encircled at the base by a stone technical building. Nearby are the keeper's house and a storage shed, both in dressed stone.
Completed on the eve of World War II, during which the port of Dunkirk was almost completely destroyed, the signal lights of the west pier was the final project of the architect Umbdenstock. This light governs the port and maritime signalling of the entrance and exit of the port of Dunkirk. It consists of a slightly tapered tower with a cylindrical-conical top. Just below are three circular, smooth masonry canopies that separate the various beacon lights. The shaft's glazed yellow brick cladding rises above a base of concrete blocks embedded with pea gravel. The circular crown is made of corbelled masonry. The copper dome is decorated with a lambrequin frieze and gargoyles in the shape of lions' heads. The technical and staff rest areas are located below ground.
The offices have a U-shaped layout with a central tower that has a strong projection in front and a courtyard to the rear. The two square storeys of the main wing rest on a foundation and are topped by a hipped roof. The back wings have a square floor over a foundation and gabled roofs. The walls are red brick with stone architectural elements. Symbols of lighthouses and beacons are found in many places.
The lighthouse was built to provide a nighttime guide to the channel of the Aa. The tower is built of brick up to the height of the lantern's service room, and has a gallery with a balustrade, supported by stone corbels. In 1949, during renovation works, the tower was clad in a layer of concrete to strengthen it. The keeper's quarters were in a building with a hipped zinc roof at the base of the structure. It consists of six interconnecting rooms that surrounded the base of the tower.
The first lighthouse, commissioned in 1837, was completely destroyed during World War II. A temporary lighthouse, "immediately called for by sailors," had to be erected pending reconstruction efforts. The tower is built of bush-hammered stone in order to give it a rustic appearance, and a one-storey service building with a flat asphalt roof and five keepers' houses.
The previous lighthouse, which was put in service in 1868, was destroyed in 1944. The Lighthouses and Beacons Department, which was looking for a lighthouse for testing a system of prestressed concrete, which would keep down costs and offer improved wind resistance. It settled on Berck due to its proximity to Paris and the need to build a very tall light on a low coastline. The tower's concrete base was poured in situ. It rests on a solid foundation of reinforced concrete, which supports a shaft built from prefabricated elements, which were assembled using a pre-tensioning system with hydraulic cylinders. The service building and keepers' quarters is built of red brick with a slate roof. It is connected to the tower by a system allowing for oscillations.
This project laid the emphasis on efficiency combined with an aesthetic based on the reversal of the traditional typology of a staircase enclosed in a cylindrical or square tower. Here, the staircase is outside and winds around a central pillar. The tower consists of a fluted cylindrical shaft bolted to the foundation and clad in stone. The staircase is made of metal. The lantern retains a traditional nineteenth-century appearance: it is circular, full in its lower part, glassed in its upper part, with a copper hemispheric top. The one-storey service building is built of reinforced concrete and breeze-blocks, and has a concrete roof terrace.
The broad-based cylindrical tower is built of granite and is topped by a light platform surrounded by a balustrade. The octagonal lantern is crowned with a cornice containing the storm drains; rainwater is evacuated by gargoyles in the shape of lions' heads. The lantern is surmounted by a windmill. The lighthouse also has a 150-metre-long granite jetty.
The cylindrical tower is built of dressed granite, with the lower portion enlarged with smooth masonry. It is topped by a console consisting of platbands supporting a metal railing. In 1886 a granite pier was added, and then extended by 20 metres. The tower was raised by an additional 6.20 metres in 1846, and a catadioptric lens was added.
Originally, the rocky Charpentiers plateau at the mouth of the Loire was marked by an iron beacon that was built in 1826–1827. This was replaced by a masonry tower built in 1850-1851, and rebuilt in 1877 after a heavy storm. The turret was completely destroyed in November 1887. It was then decided to build a lighthouse, a tower tapering with a flared base, built of masonry blocks faced with granite from Batz-sur-Mer. The top of the tower features a succession of mouldings with a stone openwork balustrade. At the base is a 56-metre-long access jetty.
This beacon is the oldest maritime signal in the Loire estuary used to mark the way to the port of Nantes. Built in 1777 on the rocky bank in the middle of the estuary, the beacon was raised in 1893 and given a light. The tapering dressed-stone tower is painted green with "MOREES" in white letters. Its platform holds the light.
This light marks the entrance of the straits separating the island of Noirmoutier from the continent. It was built along the lines of the model published by L. Reynaud. This is one of the very last metal-tower lighthouses still in operation. The shaft consists of iron plates bolted and screwed to a metal frame. A spiral staircase, whose steps are connected to the core shaft, serves the platform, which consists of an iron grating with a metal guardrail.
An initial lighthouse was built in 1830. It was a cylindrical smooth masonry tower on a square foundation with visible quoins and zinc roofing. It was destroyed in 1944. The second lighthouse, built in 1950, is a square pyramidal tower made of concrete, seated on a pyramidal stone base. The 11,407 sq. metre site also contains a series of other buildings, including four keepers' houses, a machine room, sheds, a barn, tanks, etc.
The initial lighthouse, which was put into service on 1 September 1862, consisted of an 11.6-metre-high square tower and keepers' quarters, designed by the engineer Marin. It was destroyed on 25 August 1944. A new lighthouse was then built: a smooth-surface stone pyramidal tower with a square cross-section. Abutting the south side is a square stone house integrated into the older houses and annexes from the first lighthouse. The 3,400 sq. metre surface area includes a well.
The lighthouse consists of a square stone tower coated in plaster with quoins; the ensemble also includes the square keeper's house in plastered masonry with stone quoins. The circular metal lantern rests on a granite platform. The 2,500 sq. metre site also includes additional buildings, homes, a store, as well as a well and a menhir. The site is very representative of a schoolhouse-type lighthouse.
The first tower was built in 1829. The cylindrical masonry tower, whose platform is level with that of the lighthouse, was decommissioned and replaced with a new tower in 1877. The current lighthouse tower is built in masonry in the shape of a truncated quadrangular pyramid crowned by a low red-brick gallery on a square stone base.
This slightly tapered, smooth masonry tower ends with a cornice supporting a stone openwork balustrade. It includes a vestibule located four meters above the high tide level, two keepers' rooms, an engineer's room and a watch room. The lighthouse was heavily altered in 1968/1971 during the installation of a wind turbine, which, because its vibrations led to serious cracking of the shaft, was replaced by solar panels. The lantern was modified to accommodate a helipad, which was dismantled in 1978.
This lighthouse was built to replace the light on the Arundel tower, a former castle at the entrance to the harbour of La Chaume, and hidden by the construction of buildings along the seafront in the 1960s. This was the last major lighthouse built in France. The six-sided reinforced concrete tower, made using the slipform construction technique, has narrow glass block windows in its east and west facades to provide light for the staircase.
The lighthouse has a flared trumpet-shaped concave base, which provides a solid foundation for the structure and less resistance to the force of the waves. It stands on a rocky plateau that is accessible at high tide. The tower is solid to a height of nine metres. It includes five successive chambers separated by stone vaults: there is a kitchen, two bedrooms, the battery room, and the lantern chamber. The furniture, still in place, is adapted to the rounded shape of the tower: the beds are built into walls, and the tables fold.
The later lighthouse consists of a smooth, white octagonal masonry tower painted green in its upper portion. Abutting the west façade is a two-storey masonry house with a mansard roof.
Le phare postérieur est constitué d'une tour octogonale en maçonnerie lisse peinte en blanc avec la partie supérieure en vert, accolée à la face ouest d'une maison en maçonnerie lisse de deux niveaux à toiture surélevée, à la Mansart.
The previous lighthouse, west of the southwest corner of the inner harbour, consists of a cylindrical smooth masonry tower built on a cylindrical foundation. It was painted white with a red upper portion, and red and white horizontal stripes on the upper half of the side of the alignment.
Smooth cylindrical masonry tower centred on a one-storey masonry foundation. Raised to two levels in 1851. Cornices and mouldings. The shaft ends in a congee and an astragal. Metal railing. The lantern is painted black. Outbuildings, kennel, technical room, storeroom. Nearby: Navy semaphore. Land. Inscription in lighthouse: 1 XII 1836.
Le phare du Haut-Banc du Nord (dit des Baleineaux), est situé sur un écueil isolé à 1000 m en face du phare des Baleines, construit en même temps sur la pointe nord-ouest de l'île de Ré. Le phare des Baleineaux est construit sur le modèle des tours trompettes. Il repose sur une forme prismatique en grillage de fer qui a servi de base à l'exécution du massif de fondation. Les matériaux transportés par des barques étaient déposés sur un plancher mobile disposé sur la partie supérieure de l'armature métallique. Le massif de fondation a été exécuté en béton et maçonnerie de blocage, et protégée par un parement au pied de l'ouvrage en pierre de taille. La tour fut érigée à l'aide d'une grue fixée sur le massif puis Range par les murs de la tour elle-même.
La tour octogonale en pierre calcaire de Crazanne, avec encorbellement à la partie supérieure, est accolée à la façade sud-est d'un bâtiment rectangulaire en maçonnerie de pierres apparentes avec corniches et moulures. Son soubassement de pierre est construit en granit bleu de Kersanton. Le fût se termine par une console assemblée par des plates-bandes supportant une balustrade à dés ajourés. Dans le hall d'accueil se trouve une mosaïque portant l' inscription 1854. Le site de 17 990 m2 possède différents bâtiments: un blockhaus de la seconde guerre mondiale, une salle des machines, trois groupes d'habitation. jardin et parc. Mur d'enceinte complet autour du terrain.
The first tower was built in 1772 to alert navigators to a dangerous sandbank in the Gironde, the so-called "English Sandbar". A light was added in 1838. The second lighthouse was put in to commission in 1856: its white light is fixed. The lighthouse was repaired and given a new lens in 1947. The cylindrical tower is of smooth masonry, centred on a irregularly-shaped stone foundation with quoins.
The Saint-Georges-de-Didonne lighthouse is also known as the Vallières lighthouse and the Pilot's Lighthouse. The white light from this square tower with a Breton granite foundation and a dressed stone shaft (from the Crazanne, Saint-Même and Saint-Vaize quarries) was aligned with that of Suzac, signaling a passage for ships entering the estuary. Its architecture is classic: vertical framed windows, cornices supported by brackets, openwork stone balustrade. It was bombed the day after the Liberation of the Poche de Royan and one can still see shell pockmarks on its north façade. Following the construction of the Verdon oil port across from the lighthouse, which altered the navigable channels, the beacon was definitively extinguished.
The four previous lighthouses (1830, 1842, 1860 and 1895) collapsed with the erosion of the coastline by the sea.
L'îlot, situé à 8 nautical miles du Vieux-Port, est cerné de récifs presqu'immergés: il est occupé par un phare depuis le Moyen-Age. Le premier phare est édifié par Robert d'Anjou en 1320: haut de 12,60 metres, un feu de pin et de charbon de terre y est entretenu. En 1774 la tour est rehaussée par le ministère de la marine à 23 metres, et équipée de réverbères fonctionnant à l'huile. En 1829 on construit un nouveau phare pour pouvoir l'équiper du système lenticulaire inventé par Fresnel. Il est reconstruit en 1881 pour être surélevé, et complètement détruit en août 1944. Des phares provisoires se succèdent pendant que le cabinet Arbus et Crillon propose des plans à partir de 1947. L'ensemble se compose de deux parties: le phare, une tour-colonne légèrement tronconique, en maçonnerie de pierres de Cassis apparentes et desservi par un escalier à vis, à l'est de l'îlot ; les bâtiments annexes organisés en deux ailes, au nord (logements) et à l'ouest (ateliers, salle des machines, locaux techniques) d'une vaste cour. Le chantier ayant été jugé trop coûteux, les bâtiments annexes sont demeurés inachevés, et deux groupes sculptés prévus de part et d'autre du grand escalier n'ont pas été placés.
Premier phare édifié à la Réunion, le phare de Bel-Air est composé d'une tour cylindrique en maçonnerie lisse, sur un soubassement cylindrique en maçonnerie lisse, du bâtiment d'exploitation au pied de la tour comprenant un logement de gardien, une chambre pour le personnel de passage et la salle des machines, et d'une cuisine bâtie hors-œuvre. Il signalait les récifs de la Marianne et du Cousin aux navires qui se présentaient de nuit par l'est ou le nord de l'île.
Starting in the early nineteenth century, it was planned to build a lighthouse at the eastern end of Guadeloupe to guide ships leaving or arriving at the ports of Pointe-à-Pitre, Le Moule and Marie-Galante. In 1833, a request was submitted to the Lighthouse Commission and Léonor Fresnel recommended a third-order fixed lighthouse with lens. It was built from 1838 to 1840 on the small island of Petite-Terre, donated by Mr. and Mrs. Thionville to the colony of Guadeloupe for the purpose. Based on the series of standard types included in the 1825 national lighthouse programme, this beacon was the first ever built in Guadeloupe. It includes a 20-metre-high cylindrical tower, with housing built around the base. It is unique in the Antilles, and was converted into a museum of wildlife and flora.
The first tower was circular in shape, with a 16-metre-diameter base. It consisted of several superimposed floors. On the ground floor was a vestibule with four storage areas. On the first floor was a large room known as the King's Chamber, and on the second floor was a vaulted chapel, decorated with pilasters and sculptures, with two rows of windows. Above this were quarters for the keepers. Above is the lantern, consisting of eight arches and a fireplace with arch-shaped pinnacle. A large spiral staircase serving the first two floors ended at the gallery surrounding the vault of the chapel. It then continued in an external turret, which led to the gallery on the top floor. Another staircase added later to the top floor roof led to the stone lantern. It burned a mixture of pitch, tar and wood. From 1661 to 1664, the foundation was reinforced and the lantern, which burned fish oil, was refitted. 1727: a coal fire in an iron lantern designed by engineer Bitry and manufactured in the Berry. In 1782, a new lantern housed Sangrain's metal reflectors. In 1789, Teulère raised the tower to its present height of 60 metres. His renovation retained only the ground floor and first two floors up to the chapel. He added a conical tower, 4 floors, ending in a gallery and a lantern. When it was first lit, it was fitted with parabolic reflectors on a rotating support. Fresnel worked in collaboration with the Chevalier de Borda. Fresnel selected the lighthouse to test the first prototype of his new lens. It was lit in 1823, and was in service until 1854, when it was replaced by a more high-powered catadioptric device.
The unique silhouette of Les Heaux comes from the combination of the British offshore model, with its three or four lower levels, and the onshore model, consisting of a simple column. The base of the shaft was used for the storage of combustible materials, oil and food. The kitchen is located at the meeting-point of the two volumes. The lighthouse is built of blond and grey Ile-Grande granite.
The square tower stands at the centre of a large structure containing reception rooms, equipment rooms and keepers' quarters, in front of which is a large rectangular courtyard. It is reminiscent of a kind of neo-medieval regional castle. The lighthouse combines stone and several species of grey and blond granite, and its interior décor features underwater flora and fauna.
Garangeau drew up a plan based on the art of fortification, which combines a conical, tower with four levels topped with a short tower of smaller diameter containing a spiral staircase. This surveillance and maritime signalling structure was used to strengthen the first line of defence of Saint-Malo, a scheme initiated by Vauban in 1689.
The Stiff is the oldest lighthouse in Brittay still in operation. It has the standard layout of a Vauban-style lighthouse: a truncated cone housing a lantern and the former keepers' quarters, with a adjoining staircase, all of it clad in granite. Until 1776, the lighthouse operated only during the winter period, using a hearth at the top of the tower that burned wood and coal. Then it was put into permanent service. In 1783, it was given a Sangrain lighting system. In 1820, this was replaced by parabolic reflectors and Argand lamps. In 1831, the Stiff was the first lighthouse to be fitted with a Fresnel lens with sixteen panels and mirrors, which itself was replaced in 1926 by a second lens, which is still in place.
Since it was put into service in 1863, this lighthouse has always been in the vanguard of progress: built to a standard plan by Reynaud, with a cylindrical tower separate from housing for keepers and technical buildings, its lens benefitted from the Augustin Fresnel's inventions. In 1888, it became the first lighthouse to be electrified, and in 1901 it was given a quick-flashing light. It was the world's most powerful lighthouse in 1938 after it was fitted with a new lamp, which had been presented at the Paris Exposition of 1937.
The cylindrical tower of dressed granite stones is centred on a square, two-storey building, also built of granite. It stands a few meters away from the old Saint Peter tower, which had had a light since the fifteenth century.
In 1892, the Marquise de Bloqueville, daughter of Marshal Davoust, Prince of Eckmühl, bequeathed sum of 300,000 francs to erect a lighthouse "at a dangerous point of the coast of France, not undermined by the sea." This was intended to honour the memory of her father, but also to save lives during storms, in order to redeem "the tears shed by the inevitability of war." The tower is built of Kersanton granite from the quarries at the harbor of Brest. Its square foundation measures 12 metres on a side and stands 9 metres tall; the entrance is located at the front of the foundation. The square shaft with cut sides rises up from a base 10 metres on a side and 2.80 metres tall. It is topped by a square corbelled terrace on which stands the octagonal base of the lantern, which houses the lighthouse's main room. The stairwell is covered in opaline tiles. The spiral granite staircase rises in a single flight to the top.
This is the tallest lighthouse in the world to be clad in dressed stone. It is also the tallest lighthouse in Europe. It consists of a cylindrical granite tower of granite with rubble stone masonry and a stone foundation. The top features dressed stone corbelling, and it is topped with consoles connected by arches supporting a stone balustrade. Its basement has a door with a vaulted arch, and its masonry is made of large blocks of stone. Its interior design is very carefully done, with opaline tiles on the walls, woodwork in the watch and fuel rooms.
The initial lighthouse was very simple: it consisted of a square tower rising above a rectangular three-storey building in dressed stone masonry, which was used for keepers' quarters, storerooms and equipment rooms. The top of the tower featured a dentiled cornice supporting a metal guardrail. The flat-faced lantern is still in place, but the lens was removed. A shelter was built on the footbridge for the foghorn.
The Pontusval lighthouse is one of the few Breton house-lighthouses to have been spared the devastation of World War II. This type of lighthouse, which was introduced by Reynaud, was to ensure a stable keeper presence by promoting family life. It was intended as a bridge between the Ile-Vierge lighthouse to the west, and the Ile-de-Batz lighthouse to the east.
The lighthouse was partially built with stones from the abbey of Saint-Mathieu de Fine-Terre, one of whose towers had been fitted with a lantern in the fifteenth century. It was one of the very first signalling structures built as part of the early nineteenth century lighting programme for the French coastline.
The conical granite tower rests on a circular base and is topped with a circular terrace with a dentiled cornice. The interior layout is just as it was: a ring of eight rooms around the spiral staircase at the centre. Goulphar was the first lighthouse to be built as part of the lighting programme for the French coastline that was designed by Rossel, deputy director of the Lighthouse Commission, and Augustin Fresnel, secretary, in 1825. Built of granite quarried at Rieux near Redon, this lighthouse consists of a circular base with two floors surrounding a slightly tapered hollow shaft that supports the crown and lantern. Augustin Fresnel, an engineer from the Ecole Polytechnique and Ponts-et-Chaussées, sent the plans for this model to any engineer who requested them.
This octagonal tower is the city's oldest monument. It was built by order of Charles V, surrounded in the eighteenth century by a platform used to monitor the port, and then raised in 1814 and fitted with a lighthouse lantern. It has retained many of its nineteenth-century technical elements.
At the top of Fort Risban, which was built between 1681 and 1683 to defend the harbor and the bay, a signal was built. Demolished after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, the site was chosen in 1837 for the construction of a lighthouse, consisting of a square building topped by a cylindrical tower. A corridor and rear wing complete the structure, which is built of dressed stone.
The Tour du Guet is the oldest monument in Calais. The central bastion – built in 1224 by Philip of Hurepel, Count of Boulogne – of the city's fortifications, it was destroyed in the earthquake of 1580, repaired in 1606, destroyed again by fire in 1658, rebuilt in 1689 and damaged after the bombardments by the British fleet in 1696. The lower half of the tower is square, and then, on a platform, an octagonal tower rises up, with buttresses in the middle of each of its four sides. It was a watchtower until the nineteenth century – on the platform stood the sentry who sounded the alarm. In 1818, the sentry's shelter was replaced by a glass lantern, thus creating the first lighthouse in the harbour of Calais.
The lighthouse is an octagonal tower made of brick masonry, clad in stone and concrete banding, and partly enclosed a rectangular building with two levels of swmooth stone masonry with quoins. The shaft was covered with white glazed bricks in 1992 to prevent the porous bricks from shattering during cold weather.
The lighthouse consists of an octagonal tower with concave faces of brick masonry set on an octagonal stone base. The lighthouse's buildings include the former keeper's lodge and former service building, with its garden, entrance pillars and benches.
In 1825, according to the "general programme for lighting the coast of France," two consecutive lighthouses were to cover the entire territory between them. Initially, it was planned to raise the 1775 tower, but the building proved to be too small. A new neo-classical-style lighthouse was built some 60 metres from the first one in 1829. The light was lit in 1835. Homes and shops were built on either side of the lighthouse. Until the construction of the Eiffel tower, this lighthouse was the tallest lighthouse in the world and the tallest building in France.
Leonce Reynaud designed an octagonal tower, built of stone quarried in Caen, on a sturdy granite foundation. It is bordered by a U-shaped residential building, the grounds are surrounded by a fence, with garden and lawn, and the facilities building in the rear. Access is by a semi-circular forecourt with trees and bordered by partially-filled-in ditches. In 1923, the lighthouse was sold to a private individual who made it his home. It left unchanged, and it is the oldest and most monumental lighthouse in the region. It has been perfectly documented.
This section of the medieval enclosure was perhaps built on the site of an ancient tower. Originally, it formed the southwest corner of the medieval walls and its lantern tower served as lighthouse and seamark. Preserved during the demolition of the fortifications in 1629, it was later made part of the new enclosure in 1689. From 1900 to 1914 it was restored by Juste Lisch, then under the leadership of Albert Ballu, who restored its medieval appearance.
Cylindrical tower. The light, powered by fish oil, has an 18-wick lamp and burns atop a glazed-stone lantern. The sailors complain, starting in 1685, of the poor quality of this light, since thick piers hide the light and the windows blacken very quickly. In 1718, the windows are enlarged. In 1736, the original stone lantern is dismantled and replaced by a metallic structure forged by master locksmith Lawrence Joseph in Saint-Martin-de-Ré. Restoration in 1934, 1936. The cylindrical stone tower is attached to a semi-cylindrical tower containing a staircase. The ensemble is connected to a group of heterogeneous stone buildings with tile roofs. The tower includes a ground floor and three rooms, and is topped with corbelling, with modillions and a stone balustrade. The lantern has disappeared.
The sandstone tower consists of a hexagonal base, topped by a 6-sided pyramid, which is separated from the base by a beveled cornice. It signaled the entrance to the Roman port of Frejus, which has been filled in since the eighteenth century, the harbor that sheltered the warships captured from Cleopatra by Octavian during the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE.
The lighthouse consists of a cylindrical stone tower set on a square pedestal that integrates the keeper's quarters. The cornice is topped by dressed stone battlements forming a parapet, probably to recall the nearby Genoese tower, which was built in the sixteenth century, and the defensive role played by the ensemble. This lighthouse is the fifth built on the Corsican coastline, which had been forgotten in the 1825 general programme for lighting the French coastline.
/2/ Si vous n'avez pas flash installé sur votre ordinateur, vous pouvez consulter la version accessible du site.
Pour pouvoir afficher correctement ce site, il est nécessaire de disposer du plugin Flash Player 10.1.
Ce logiciel gratuit est facilement téléchargeable sur le site Adobe.
Ce plugin Flash fonctionne sur les navigateurs suivants : Internet Explorer, Netscape, Opera, Mozilla, Safari, Chrome. Il est compatible avec Microsoft Windows, Apple MacOs, Linux, Solaris et Pocket PC.
La procédure pour télécharger ce plugin est la suivante :
1. Aller sur le site de Adobe Flash Player et cliquez sur le bouton "Télécharger Flash Player"
2. Vous devez accepter les conditions d'utilisation d'Adobe Flash Player en cliquant sur le bouton "Accepter et installer dès maintenant".
3. Si une fenêtre d'avertissement de sécurité apparaît, cliquez sur "Oui" pour accepter l'installation de Flash Player.
L'installation se fait très rapidement ; il n'est pas nécessaire de redémarrer le navigateur.
Pour toutes autres questions concernant Flash, vous pouvez consulter le site Adobe ou contacter votre revendeur informatique.